types of Psychologist

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    Their Roles, Specialisations, and Qualifications

    Psychology is a vast field that deals with the study of the human mind and behaviour. Psychologists are professionals who are trained to understand and help people with different mental, emotional, and behavioural problems. While many people often think of clinical psychologists when they hear the term psychologist, there are many other types of psychologists in the field. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the various categories of psychologists, their roles, the groups they work with, and how they are trained to carry out their duties.

    Types of Psychologists:
    Broadly speaking, there are eight categories of psychologists: clinical, counselling, school, educational, developmental, social, industrial-organisational, and neuropsychologists. Each category is defined by its unique area of focus and the population groups that it serves.

    Psychologists different types

    1-Clinical Psychologists

    These are perhaps the most well-known and frequently sought-after psychologists. Clinical psychologists primarily deal with diagnosing and treating psychological disorders ranging from depression and anxiety to schizophrenia and personality disorders.
    Their task is to help people deal with varying mental challenges by providing psychotherapy, counselling, and psychoanalysis treatments. These treatments might include cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), dialectal-behaviour therapy (DBT), or other evidence-based therapies.

    2-Counselling Psychologists

    Counselling psychologists are responsible for helping individuals who might be going through personal and developmental modalities. Counselling psychologists work with populations across the lifespan and help them deal with challenges such as emotional distress, anxiety, stress, and relationship difficulties. They often use talk therapy to help people develop coping mechanisms.

    3-School Psychologists

    As the name suggests, school psychologists work in educational settings and work with students, teachers, and administrators to create a conducive learning environment. Their primary goal is to enhance learning and academic success by addressing psychological and behavioural barriers that might hinder student academic success. School psychologists also work with students with disabilities, learning challenges, and those with gifted and talented abilities.

    4-Educational Psychologists

    Educational psychologists work closely with teachers, administrators, and policymakers in schools and universities. Their roles range from studying how people learn to developing better teaching and learning strategies. Educational psychologists also conduct research, which helps to shape education policy and curricula

    5-Developmental Psychologists

    Developmental psychologists study the ways in which people grow and change throughout their lifespan. They analyse factors such as biology, culture, and environment as they assess the diversity of human experiences. Developmental psychology is a broad discipline, and developmental psychologists work in a wide range of settings, including schools, hospitals, and research institutions.

    6-Social Psychologists

    Social psychologists study the impact that social situations and environments have on behaviour. They examine the ways in which interpersonal relationships, communication, and group dynamics can affect thoughts, attitudes, and behaviours. Social psychologists work in academic or research settings and are often employed in fields such as marketing, politics, and advertising

    7-Industrial-Organisational (I-O) Psychologists

    I-O psychologists work in organisational settings; they study human behaviour within the workplace. Their roles include job analysis or assessment, selection and training, performance evaluations, and organisational development. These psychologists help businesses better understand their employees to maximise efficiency and productivity.


    Neuropsychologists specialise in brain functioning or more precisely, the relationship between the brain and behaviour. They often work in clinical or research settings, examining the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural effects of brain injuries, diseases, or disorders. They also work with people who have experienced a traumatic brain injury and offer counselling and strategies to manage the impacts of a brain injury.


    In order to be registered as a psychologist in Australia, individuals must meet specific requirements set by the Psychology Board of Australia. A similar requirement exists in New Zealand and is overseen by the New Zealand Psychology Board. These requirements vary depending on the type of psychologist registration.
    For general registration, applicants must hold a degree in psychology that is accredited by the Australia Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC) or equivalent. Applicants must also successfully complete a minimum of two years of supervised professional practice, including a minimum of one year of supervised full-time equivalent practice immediately before the application for registration is made.

    For provisional registration, applicants must hold an APAC-accredited qualification in psychology or equivalent and have completed a minimum of one year of supervised practice.
    Additional information about registration standards and requirements for the various types of psychologist registrations can be found on the Psychology Board of Australia’s website or the New Zealand Psychology Board website.

    Different categories of psychologists have varying educational requirements. However, all psychologists must complete a bachelor’s degree in psychology, pre-med, biology, or related fields. After obtaining a bachelor’s degree, psychologists often go on to pursue a master’s or doctorate in psychology, which is the primary requirement for many types of psychologists


    Psychology is an essential field that plays a significant role in shaping the mental, emotional, and social well-being of people. There are many types of psychologists, and each of these focuses on specific areas, serving different population groups in different settings.

    These professionals must be properly qualified and registered to operate within their respective fields of practice. Understanding the different types of psychologists and their qualifications is essential for those who may be seeking therapy or treatment for mental, emotional, and behavioural issues. Ultimately knowledge provides better decision-making when seeking services to support psychological well-being and mitigate risks of mental health concerns.

    Now just to muddy the waters further.. what about a psychiatrist? How is this different from a psychologist?
    While psychologists focus primarily on assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental and emotional problems, psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialise in diagnosing and treating mental illnesses using medical intervention. Unlike psychologists who provide psychotherapy and counselling, psychiatrists can prescribe medications, provide medical interventions such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and administer other forms of medical treatment such as psychotherapy.

    Psychiatrists typically work in multidisciplinary teams alongside other mental health professionals such as psychologists, social workers, and nurses to provide comprehensive care to individuals with complex mental health issues. They are often sought after for the treatment of severe and complex mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, as well as for cases where medication may be necessary to treat depression, anxiety, or other mental health disorders.

    In summary, while psychologists use clinical therapies and counselling to treat mental illnesses, psychiatrists focus on the medical diagnosis, treatment, and medication management of mental disorders. The two professions often work in conjunction with one another to provide comprehensive care to individuals.

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